Academies were first established in 2002. By 2015 there were over 4000. As a result, it is important to understand their impact on the English state school system.

NFER have published a variety of work directly addressing the issues arising from the Academies programme:

There is also a range of work on issues around school structures that is relevant to the discussion of academies, including: school improvement and the middle tier; intervention and accountability; governance; school leadership and system leadership.